The following free online citation generators can be very helpful in formatting your citations. Note that the citations are not always perfect. You are responsible for ensuring the accuracy of your citations.
These resources can provide additional assistance to you regarding Chicago. As always, you can also contact the Library if you need help.
Many citation styles, including Chicago, require headline-style capitalization of titles of works. Below are the rules outline in Chicago 8.157 regarding headline-style capitalization.
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The information below comes from 16th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style. As needed, section references are provided. "Chicago" is used throughout this page as a shortened form of the manual's title.
Chicago actually has two styles for documentation. The first requires footnotes or endnotes along with a bibliography. The second requires parenthetical citations along with a reference list. You should ask your instructor which he/she prefers.
In Chicago style, you may use either footnotes or endnotes. You should ask your professor to see what he/she prefers. Regardless, notes are used both for citation as well as for additional information. According to the Chicago manual, "The notes allow space for unusual types of sources as well as for commentary on the sources cited, making this system extremely flexible" (14.2).
The notes are typically numbered and correspond to superscripted numbers within the text.1
1. This is an example of a note that references a superscripted numbered item.
While your professor might require you to provide all bibliographic information in the first note for a source, typically the note does not contain all bibliographic information. You need only provide enough information so the reader can then find the source in your full bibliography. The shortened form should include the author(s), a shortened form of the title, and the page number for the referenced section. Each part of the note should be separated with a comma. The title must follow capitalization and formatting rules for titles of its type (see the boxes below). For more information see sections 14.14 - 14.55 in the Chicago manual.
Shortened citation in a note
8. Minow and LaMay, Presidential Debates, 138.
If you are required to use parenthetical citations instead of notes, then Chicago advocates for the use of the author-date system. In this style, you will use parentheses to enclose the author's last name, the publication date, and page numbers cited directly after the referenced text. Do not use a comma to separate the author's name and the publication date, but DO use a comma to separate the publication date and the year.
(Smith 2014, 27).
For journal articles, you will need the name of the author(s), the title of the article, the journal title, the volume and issue number for the journal, the date of the issue, and the page numbers for the article.
Blair, Walter. "Americanized Comic Braggarts." Critical Inquiry 4, no. 2 (1977): 331-49.
Karmaus, Wilfried, and John F. Riebow. "Storage of Serum in Plastic and Glass Containers May Alter the Serum Concentration of Polychlorinated Biphenyls." Environmental Health Perspectives 112 (May 2004): 643-47.
Electronic Journal Article (Databases)
The entry for an electronic journal article accessed from a database is the same as the entries listed above. You must, however, include the URL or DOI after the page numbers. Separate them with a period.
For parenthetical journal articles, the bibliographic citation at the end is the same as listed above except the date of publication follows the name of the author(s) and the issue number for the journal is enclosed in parentheses.
Blair, Walter. 1977. "Americanized Comic Braggarts." Critical Inquiry 4(2): 331-49.
*If you are required to provide the full bibliographic citation in a note, replace the periods in the citation with commas and list the name of the author(s) as first name first. The page number listed should be the page that references the text being quoted.
Walter Blair, "Americanized Comic Braggarts," Critical Inquiry 4, no. 2 (1977): 346.
For books, you must include the following elements:
Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.
Ward, Geoffrey C., and Ken Burns. The War: An Intimate History, 1941-1945. New York: Knopf, 2007.
*If a title has four or more authors, list all the names in the bibliography. In the note, however, you cite only the name of the first author and follow that with et al.
Barnes et al., Plastics.
For books, you follow the same rules as listed above. The only exception is that the publication year follows the name of the author(s) with a period separating the two elements. A period follows the name of the publisher, too.
Pollan, Michael. 2006. The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin.
If the book has an editor or translator, then his/her name follows the title of the book. Precede the name with either the words Edited by or Translated by.
If the cited material is a chapter of a book, include the chapter author, title (in quotation marks), and the editor. Precede the title of the book with the word In. The page numbers for the chapter follow the name of the editor with a comma to separate the elements.
(Note) Gould, Glenn. "Streisand as Schwarzkopf." In The Glenn Gould Reader, edited by Tim Page, 308-11. New York: Vintage, 1984.
(Parenthetical) Gould, Glenn. 1984. "Streisand as Schwarzkopf." In The Glenn Gould Reader, edited by Tim Page, 308-11. New York: Vintage.
*If you are required to provide the full bibliographic citation in a note, replace the periods in the citation with commas and list the name of the author(s) with first name first. The publication information is placed in parentheses. The page number for the text being quoted follows the closing parenthesis along with a comma to separate the elements.
Michael Pollan, The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99-100.
Chicago recommends the inclusion of the URL or DOI when using sources found online (14.4). You should also include the publication or revision date for the source. The date of access is not necessary unless no publication or revision date can be identified.
If you are using notes for your document, then electronic resources should be hyperlinked in the note (14.14).