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Upward Bound History Research: Evaluating Sources

Is it credible?

Image by Ileana Grimm

Evaluating Sources Worksheet

Reliable? Or Not?

Popular or Scholarly?

Evaluating Web Content

How do you know whether a web site is reliable?  What questions should you ask?  

The librarians at California State University - Chico have come up with a handy CRAAP test:


  • When was the information published?
  • Does your topic require current sources?


  • Who is the intended audience?
  • How does the information relate to your research question?


  • Who is the author and what are their credentials?
  • Are they qualified to write about the topic?


  • Is the source peer-reviewed or refereed?
  •  Are the author’s conclusions supported by evidence?
  • Is the information correct? Can you verify the information elsewhere?


  • Does the source appear objective or is it biased?
  • Do the authors make their purpose and motivations clear?
  • Do the authors acknowledge potential conflicts of interest?

Need more guidance? Here is an excellent, detailed guide from UC Berkeley Libraries: